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Lund University

Reference guide for APA 7th edition - Short version

Short version of the reference guide for APA 7th edition, a guide intended for students at the departments of Biology and Environmental Science at Lund University on how to format references according to the APA style.

Direct quotations

Direct quotations

In some cases you might want to reproduce text from another work word-for-word, a so called direct quotation. When directly quoting parts of a work, provide the surname(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication followed by the page number(s). The reference information on the specific part of the work cited, i.e. the page number(s), is given in the in-text citation only (never in the reference list), and a reference to the work in full (e.g. the article or book) is given in the reference list.

When quoting less than 40 words, the quotation is incorporated in the text and enclosed within quotation marks. The reference is added either in the narrative before the quotation (with page number(s) placed after the quotation) or directly after the quotation:

Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
It has been stated that “The concept of systems intelligence highlights that the bottom-up activities of private citizens can be an important part of light pollution management” (Lyytimäki, 2015, p.12).

According to Lyytimäki (2015), “The concept of systems intelligence highlights that the bottom-up activities of private citizens can be an important part of light pollution management” (p.12).

When quoting 40 words or more, the quotation is separated from the main text by starting the quotation on a new line and indenting the whole quote 0.5 cm (do not use quotation marks). The reference is added either in the narrative before the quotation (with page number(s) placed after the quotation) or directly after the quotation:

Parenthetical citation Narrative citation

The activities of private citizens can be important in light pollution management, but the responsibility cannot be placed on the individual alone:

However, a focus on systems intelligence on a household level does not imply that individual citizens should alone be responsible for systemic changes. On the contrary, planners, managers, policy-makers and even scientists can also employ the ideas of system intelligence, especially by providing opportunities for active participation by the people. (Lyytimäki, 2015, p. 12)

According to Lyytimäki (2015) activities of private citizens can be important in light pollution management, but the responsibility cannot be placed on the individual alone:

However, a focus on systems intelligence on a household level does not imply that individual citizens should alone be responsible for systemic changes. On the contrary, planners, managers, policy-makers and even scientists can also employ the ideas of system intelligence, especially by providing opportunities for active participation by the people. (p. 12)