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Lund University

Reference guide for APA 7th edition

Reference guide for APA 7th edition intended for students at the department of Biology and CEC, Lund University. NB! If you access the guide using a smartphone, please note that the text will open below the menu.



Citations can be written in many ways, and the choice of style will depend on the context. The reference style used in the education at the departments of Biology, Geology, Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, and the Centre for Environmental and Climate Science (CEC) at Lund University is APA (7th edition), a version of the Harvard style developed by the American Psychological Association. The APA style is an author/date system, where the in-text citations consist of author(s) and year of publication, and the references in the reference list are arranged in alphabetic order.

This guide provides instructions on how to write references to various types of works formatted according to the APA (7th edition) style in the form of templates and examples. The guide contains the most common types of sources encountered in Science, and it is not comprehensive. The official APA (7th edition) manual does not contain any specific instructions on how to refer to government publications outside the United States. The recommendation is instead to format the references according to guidelines in each country. The instructions under the section Government publications are therefore our interpretation of how to apply APA (7th edition) to Swedish and EU government publications. If the specific information you are looking for is missing or if you need further guidance, consult your librarian or the official publication manual of the American Psychological Association which is available in the Biology library.

If you have any comments or questions concerning this guide, please contact Anja Ödman ( or Lars-Johan Lyttkens Lindén (, who are librarians at the Library of Science, Lund University.