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Reference guide for APA 7th edition

Reference guide for APA 7th edition intended for students at the department of Biology and CEC, Lund University. NB! If you access the guide using a smartphone, the text will open below the menu.

Direct quotations

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In some cases you might want to reproduce text from another work word-for-word, a so called direct quotation. When directly quoting parts of a work, provide the surname(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication followed by the page number(s). The reference information on the specific part of the work cited, i.e. the page number(s), is given in the in-text citation only (never in the reference list), and a reference to the work in full (e.g. the article or book) is given in the reference list.

When quoting less than 40 words, the quotation is incorporated in the text and enclosed within quotation marks. The reference is added either in the narrative before the quotation (with page number(s) placed after the quotation) or directly after the quotation.

When quoting 40 words or more, the quotation is separated from the main text by starting the quotation on a new line and indenting the whole quote 0.5 cm (do not use quotation marks). The reference is added either in the narrative before the quotation (with page number(s) placed after the quotation) or directly after the quotation.

Example of an in-text reference when quoting less than 40 words

Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
It has been stated that “The concept of systems intelligence highlights that the bottom-up activities of private citizens can be an important part of light pollution management” (Lyytimäki, 2015, p.12). According to Lyytimäki (2015), “The concept of systems intelligence highlights that the bottom-up activities of private citizens can be an important part of light pollution management” (p.12).

Example of an in-text reference when quoting more than 40 words

Parenthetical citation Narrative citation

The activities of private citizens can be important in light pollution management, but the responsibility cannot be placed on the individual alone:

However, a focus on systems intelligence on a household level does not imply that individual citizens should alone be responsible for systemic changes. On the contrary, planners, managers, policy-makers and even scientists can also employ the ideas of system intelligence, especially by providing opportunities for active participation by the people. (Lyytimäki, 2015, p. 12)

According to Lyytimäki (2015) activities of private citizens can be important in light pollution management, but the responsibility cannot be placed on the individual alone:

However, a focus on systems intelligence on a household level does not imply that individual citizens should alone be responsible for systemic changes. On the contrary, planners, managers, policy-makers and even scientists can also employ the ideas of system intelligence, especially by providing opportunities for active participation by the people. (p. 12)