Sometimes you might want to cite a specific part of a work, such as specific pages, paragraphs, tables, figures, chapters of authored books (i.e. no editor) and parts of videos or audio recordings. When citing specific parts of a work, the reference information on the specific part of the work cited is given in the in-text citation only (never in the reference list), and a reference to the work in full (e.g. the article or book) is given in the reference list.
NB! Use this format to cite visual works such as figures, but not to reproduce them. To reproduce visual works, permission and/or a copyright attribution may be necessary in addition to the reference. To get permission to use an illustration from a published work (such as an article or a book) you need to contact the copyright owner, which most often is the publisher. For further instructions, see section Reproducing visual works.
|Parenthetical citation||Narrative citation|
|(Arendt, 1997, p.170)||Arendt (1997, p. 170) stated that...|
|(Fiscus & Fath, 2019, Chapter 3)||Fiscus and Fath (2019, Chapter 3) discuss this...|
|(Chiara, 2019, Figure 1)||This was illustrated by Chiara (1997, Figure 1)...|
|(Gow et al., 2019, Table 1)||Gow et al. (2019, Table 1) categorized...|
|(Crespi, 2019, 3:28)||Crespi (2019, 3:28) confirmed this...|
Arendt, J.D. (1997). Adaptive intrinsic growth rates: an integration across taxa. Quarterly Review in Biology, 72(2), 149– 177.
Chiara, V., Portugal, F. R., & Jeanson, R. (2019). Social intolerance is a consequence, not a cause, of dispersal in spiders. PLoS Biology, 17(7), Article e3000319. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000319
Crespi, S. (Host). (2019, November 14). How to make an Arctic ship ‘vanish,’ and how fast-moving spikes are heating the Sun’s atmosphere [Audio podcast]. In Science podcasts. Science. https://www.sciencemag.org/podcast/how-make-arctic-ship-vanish-and-how-fast-moving-spikes-are-heating-sun-s-atmosphere
Fiscus, D. A., & Fath, B. D. (2019). Foundations for sustainability: A coherent framework of life-environment relations. Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2016-0-00343-1
Gow, E. A., Knight, S. M., Bradley, D. W., Clark, R. G., Winkler, D. W., Bélisle, M., Berzins, L. L., Blake, T., Bridge, E. S., Burke, L., Dawson, R. D., Dunn, P. O., Garant, D., Holroyd, G., Horn, A. G., David J. T. Hussell, D. J. T., Lansdorp, O., Laughlin, A. J., . . . Norris, D. R. (2019). Effects of spring migration distance on tree swallow reproductive success within and among flyways. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7, Article 380. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00380