The instructions in this section concern references to articles in scientific journals. Note that if the article is published in an online journal, it might have been provided with an article number or eLocator instead of page numbers. In that case, state the article number or eLocator preceded by the word “Article” in place of the pages at the end of the reference.
If a DOI has been assigned to the article, include this number in the reference. If no DOI has been assigned and the article was accessed online from a nondatabase website, use the URL of the webpage from which it was retrieved. If the article was accessed in print or retrieved from an academic database, no URL is included.
Some articles will have supplementary information in the online version, which is material related to the article that could not be included in the printed version for reasons of space or medium (e.g. video or sound files). The material is often in the form of tables or figures, but it could also be text (sometimes in a separate document). The supplement may or may not be peer reviewed. If you want to cite supplementary information from an article, consult with your teacher/supervisor whether or not the material is an appropriate source. For advice on how to format references to supplementary information, ask your librarian.
Do not forget to consult the general instructions on how to write references according to APA (7th edition), including
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (YYYY). Title of article. Journal Title, volume(issue), page number-page number. DOI or URL
|Parenthetical citation||Narrative citation|
|(Lyytimäki, 2015)||According to Lyytimäki (2015)...|
|(Zayed & Badawi, 2020)||As stated by Zayed and Badawi (2020)...|
|(Chiara et al., 2019)||Chiara et al. (2019) found...|
|(Truant et al., 1998)||In a study by Truant et al. (1998)...|
|(Gow et al., 2019)||Gow et al. (2019) state that…|
Chiara, V., Portugal, F. R., & Jeanson, R. (2019). Social intolerance is a consequence, not a cause, of dispersal in spiders. PLoS Biology, 17(7), Article e3000319. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000319
Gow, E. A., Knight, S. M., Bradley, D. W., Clark, R. G., Winkler, D. W., Bélisle, M., Berzins, L. L., Blake, T., Bridge, E. S., Burke, L., Dawson, R. D., Dunn, P. O., Garant, D., Holroyd, G., Horn, A. G., David J. T. Hussell, D. J. T., Lansdorp, O., Laughlin, A. J., . . . Norris, D. R. (2019). Effects of spring migration distance on tree swallow reproductive success within and among flyways. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7, Article 380. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00380
Lyytimäki, J. (2015). Avoiding overly bright future: The systems intelligence perspective on the management of light pollution. Environmental Development, 16, 4–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2015.06.009
Truant, R., Fridell, R. A., Benson, E. R., Herold, A., & Cullen, B. R. (1998). Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling by protein nuclear import factors. Journal of Cell Biology, 77(4), 269-275. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0171-9335(98)80085-X
Zayed, M., & Badawi, M. A. (2020). In-Silico evaluation of a new gene from wheat reveals the divergent evolution of the CAP160 homologous genes into monocots. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 88(2), 151–163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00239-019-09920-5