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Lund University

Reference guide for APA 7th edition

Reference guide for APA 7th edition intended for students at the department of Biology and CEC, Lund University. NB! If you access the guide using a smartphone, please note that the text will open below the menu.

Personal communications

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The instructions in this section concern personal communications such as letters, e-mails, phone calls, conversations, lectures and unpublished handouts. Do not use personal communication for quotes or information from participants whom you interview as part of your original research. Cite personal communications only when there is no recoverable source available. Personal communications are cited in text only and are not included in the reference list.

NB! Before citing a personal communication, you need permission from the person in question to do so. 

Template for how to format in-text references to personal communications

Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
(A. A. Author, personal communication, Month DD, YYYY) A. A. Author (personal communication, Month DD, YYYY) stated that...

Examples of in-text references to personal communications

Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
(J.-O. Karlsson, personal communication, March 27, 2018) According to J.-O. Karlsson (personal communication, March 27, 2018)...