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Lund University

Reference guide for APA 7th edition

Reference guide for APA 7th edition intended for students at the department of Biology and CEC, Lund University. NB! If you access the guide using a smartphone, please note that the text will open below the menu.

Secondary sources

Secondary sources

The instructions on this page concern references to secondary sources. Citing a work from a secondary source is generally to be avoided, since you are expected to have read the works you cite. You may only use a secondary source if the original source is not available, e.g. if it is very rare, impossible to get hold of or written in a language you do not understand. When citing a work from a secondary source, the in-text reference should include reference information on both the original work that you want to cite and the secondary source in which you have found it. However, only information about the secondary source appear in the reference list.

Do not forget to consult the general instructions on how to write references according to APA (7th edition), including how to write in-text references and construct a reference list, the number of authors to be included, how to write references to two or more works within the same parenthesis, what to do if you have several references with the same author and publication date, how you cite specific parts of works, how to handle incomplete reference information (e.g. missing author information or no publication date), and when/how to use acronyms.


In-text references  
(Zhukov et al. 2017, as cited in Gritsan et al., 2019)  Zhukov et al. (2017, as cited in Gritsan et al., 2019) found that...
Reference list
Gritsan, Y., Kunakh, O., Dubinina, J., Kotsun, V., & Tkalich, Y. (2019). The catena aspect of the landscape diversity of the "Dnipro-Orilsky" natural reserve. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 28(3), 417-431.