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Reference guide for APA 7th edition

Reference guide for APA 7th edition intended for students at the department of Biology and CEC, Lund University. NB! If you access the guide using a smartphone, the text will open below the menu.

Number of authors listed

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The maximum number of authors listed differs between the in-text reference and the entry in the reference list. The maximum number of authors per source stated in the in-text references is two. If the source has three or more authors, state only the first author followed by “et al.”. If the in-text citation of multiple works with three or more authors shortens to the same form, write out as many names as is needed to distinguish the references from one another followed by a comma (NB!) and “et al.”.

The maximum number of authors per source stated in the reference list is twenty. If the source has twenty-one or more authors, list the first nineteen authors followed by three dots (. . .) and then the last author.

Examples of in-text references

Parenthetical citation Narrative citation
(Beletsky, 1996) According to Beletsky (1996), the…
(Fiscus & Fath, 2019) Fiscus and Fath (2019) mean...
(Chiara et al., 2019) Chiara et al. (2019) found...
(Gow et al., 2019) Gow et al. (2019) state that…
(Sutherland, Armstrong, et al., 2010) Sutherland, Armstrong, et al. (2010)
(Sutherland, Armstrong, et al., 2010; Sutherland, Clout, et al., 2010) Sutherland, Armstrong, et al. (2010) and Sutherland, Clout, et al. (2010) found...

Examples of references in the reference list

Beletsky, L. (1996). The red-winged blackbird: The biology of a strongly polygenous songbird. Academic press.

Chiara, V., Portugal, F. R., & Jeanson, R. (2019). Social intolerance is a consequence, not a cause, of dispersal in spiders. PLoS Biology, 17(7), Article e3000319.

Fiscus, D. A., & Fath, B. D. (2019). Foundations for sustainability: A coherent framework of life-environment relations. Academic Press.

Gow, E. A., Knight, S. M., Bradley, D. W., Clark, R. G., Winkler, D. W., Bélisle, M., Berzins, L. L., Blake, T., Bridge, E. S., Burke, L., Dawson, R. D., Dunn, P. O., Garant, D., Holroyd, G., Horn, A. G., David J. T. Hussell, D. J. T., Lansdorp, O., Laughlin, A. J.,  . . . Norris, D. R. (2019). Effects of spring migration distance on tree swallow reproductive success within and among flyways. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7, Article 380.

Sutherland, W. J., Armstrong, D., Butchart, S. H. M., Earnhardt, J. M., Ewen, J., Jamieson, I., Jones, C. G., Lee, R., Newbery, P., Nichols, J. D., Parker, K. A., Sarrazin, F., Seddon, P. J., Shah, N., & Tatayah, V. (2010). Standards for documenting and monitoring bird reintroduction projects. Conservation Letters, 3(4), 229–235.

Sutherland, W. J., Clout, M., Cote, I. M., Daszak, P., Depledge, M. H., Fellman, L., Fleishman, E., Garthwaite, R., Gibbons, D. W., De Lurio, J., Impey, A. J., Lickorish, F., Lindenmayer, D., Madgwick, J., Margerison, C., Maynard, T., Peck, L. S., Pretty, J., Prior, S., … Watkinson, A. R. (2010). A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2010. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 25(1), 1–7.