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Lund University

Reference guide for APA 7th edition - Short version

Short version of the reference guide for APA 7th edition, a guide intended for students at the departments of Biology and Environmental Science at Lund University on how to format references according to the APA style.

Secondary sources

Secondary sources

The instructions on this page are valid for references to secondary sources. Citing a work from a secondary source is generally to be avoided, since you are expected to have read the works you cite. You may only use a secondary source if the original source is not available, e.g. if it is very rare, impossible to get hold of or written in a language you do not understand. When citing a work from a secondary source, the in-text reference should include reference information on both the original work that you want to cite and the secondary source in which you have found it. However, only information about the secondary source appear in the reference list.


Examples:

In-text references  
(Zhukov et al. 2017, as cited in Gritsan et al., 2019)  Zhukov et al. (2017, as cited in Gritsan et al., 2019) found that...
Reference list
Gritsan, Y., Kunakh, O., Dubinina, J., Kotsun, V., & Tkalich, Y. (2019). The catena aspect of the landscape diversity of the «Dnipro-Orilsky» natural reserve. Journal of Geology, Geography and Geoecology, 28(3), 417-431. https://doi.org/10.15421/111939