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Lund University

Education incl. PA & HR: Academic writing

Why references?

This video lecture is part of the material in a MOOC (massive open online course) on academic writing offered by Lund University. You can find the course "Writing in English at University" at
The course is offered for free and anybody can register.


An online resource for academic writing in English at Lund University. Covers the Writing process, Grammar & Words, Sources & Referencing and Academic Integrity. 

What does academic writing mean?

Academic writing is about, independently as well as based in the knowledge retrieved from others, writing in your own words how you have solved a problem or problematized a certain aspect. You'll have to state clearly which facts and thoughts you've found in the literature and what is your own contribution by using in-text- references and collect all your sources in a reference list.

Academic writing is also about following the conventions of your subject discipline regarding language, terminology and reference style.

Get more tips in the following guides:

Citing & Referencing

Which reference system to use depends on your subject and your tutor. So be sure to ask for advice at your department.

Here you can find several guides on how to cite and make references according to APA, Harvard and Oxford, the most used reference styles within the social sciences:

Publish your thesis!

Research methods

Are you looking for literature on social research methods? Use these guides for tips:  

Research Methods – Social Sciences A guide to a selection of books on methods, research and academic writing in the social sciences. All books are available at the Social Science Faculty Library or as an e-book. 

Sage Research Methods Online is a tool designed to help you create research projects and understand the methods behind them. Here you'll find over 1400 method terms described and about 600 books and encyclopedias on research methods.