Paper 3, Institute for the Advancement of University Learning, University of Oxford. One of the factors underlying students' approaches to academic work appears to be students' conception of what learning is. Change the conception, it is argued, and the approach will change too. So what are these conceptions? The paper discuss Roger Säljö's account of student conceptions of learning.
Paper 2, Institute for the Advancement of University Learning, University of Oxford. In 1976 Ference Marton published an influential paper introducing the idea that university students could adopt either a "deep" or "surface" approach to learning when they undertook an academic task. We supply a brief account of the idea of deep and surface approaches to learning, look at some of the common misunderstandings that arise, and countenance some common criticism.
Jennifer Case & Delia Marshall (2004) Studies in Higher Education, 29:5, 605-615. This article describes two approaches to learning (in addition to the classic deep and surface approaches) identified in studies of student learning in engineering contexts.
Paper 4, Institute for the Advancement of University Learning, University of Oxford. More than half a century ago, William Perry began conducting a seminal study of Harvard students' learning. What emerged from his longitudinal project was a sophisticated and compelling account of student intellectual development.
Kathleen M. Galotti, Blythe Mcvicker Clinchy, Kathryn H. Ainsworth, Beth Lavin and Annick F. Mansfield (1999) Sex Roles Volume 40, Numbers 9-10, 745-766. This is a study of "separate" and "connected knowing" and how they relate to gender and approach to learning.
Topics included in the book are: - How can one study the process of student learning in higher education? - How does distance education differ from campus-based education? - Do students taking courses by distance education approach their studies in a different way from students in campus-based institutions? This book is an important resource for all those concerned with learning and teaching in universities and colleges, whether in campus-based or distance learning institutions.
Ann Bainbridge Frymier, Communication Quarterly Vol. 53, No. 2, May 2005, pp. 197/212. This study hypothesizes that students who are effective communicators will be more successful in the classroom. Participants reported recently received grades, their level of state motivation to study, affective learning, performance of learning indicators, and satisfaction with instructor communication. Overall, students’ communication effectiveness was positively associated with positive learning outcomes.
Peter Kugel, Studies in Higher Education Volume 18, No. 3, 1993. Kugel has formulated a model of how university teachers gradually change their view of teaching from their debut as a teacher. He builds a development ladder with five stages, but says nothing about whether everyone goes through these stages or if you will take them in a certain order. He also describes the transitions between the stages, and something about why teachers move from one stage to another.
Fox, Dennis, Studies in Higher Education, Volume 8, Issue 2, 1983. The paper presents a conceptual model for thinking about the process of teaching and learning based on how teachers respond to the question: "What do you mean by teaching?"