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Lund University

LTH PhD Students Introduction Guide: Academic writing

by librarian Emma-Lisa Hansson

Academic writing & referencing

Need to increase your skills in academic writing and learn more on referencing? Then this section is for you!

Academic integrity

Open online courses on academic writing


What is plagiarism?

Lund University's guidelines and regulations on plagiarism states that "Plagiarism is a lack of independence in the design and/or wording of academic work presented by a student compared to the level of independence required by the educational context. Deceitful plagiarism is a lack of independence combined with an intent on the part of the student to present the work of others as his or her own."


Reference management programs will save you time when you cite and when you create your bibliography. You can quickly save articles and read them later. Are you interested to use a reference management program? Learn more in the Reference management guide.

Why cite?

Citing the work that supports your research is both an ethical issue and a legal issue.

Which reference system to use depends on your subject and your teacher, so be sure to ask at your department for the appropriate reference system.

The ethics of citing is based on the scholarly tradition of giving credit for information and ideas that are not one's own. Science has a long tradition of acknowledging priority through citations. You have the ethical responsibility to cite all works that were used to support your research, to give credit to earlier work and to provide a clear path for those who follow in your footsteps.