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Search, evaluate, write and cite

Support for students at the Faculty of Medicine.

New guide - Search, evaluate, cite

This guide will no longer be updated. It has been replaced by our new guide:

  • Search, evaluate, cite - Guide to searching, evaluating and citing. Medical Faculty Library, Lund University.




Read and evaluate research articles

Read and evaluate research articles - introduction

Once you have found an article, you will also need to evaluate and rate it to determine if you can use it. Does the article answer your question? Is it of good scientific quality? These two videos walks you through what to think about when evaluating articles.

Video - Evaluating sources for credibility, The NC State University Libaries.

Video - Critiquing a journal article, Bolton Universtiy Library.

General tips for evaluating

  • Study design - Is it suitable for the research question?
  • Population size - can general conclusions be drawn?
  • Selection of participants in the study
  • Confounding factors/variables?
  • Bias?
  • Are conflicts of interest reported?
  • Is the financing of the study reported?

For further reading - see Tips on literature about evaluating!

Evidence grading - templates

If you are assessing the quality of evidence in-depth, the GRADE method can be used. GRADE is short for Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation, and the method is international standard in evidence-based practice.

The GRADE methodology framework covers:

  • Framing the question and important outcomes
  • Rating the quality of the evidence
  • Publication bias
  • How to deal with imprecision, inconsistency and indirectness
  • How to sum up and present evidence

Read more and start using the GRADE method  at the and the Grade Handbook.

Learn more about evidence assessment:

Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM)

Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT)

A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklist

Evidence-Based Medicine Worksheets

Critical Appraisal Worksheets


Hierarchy of evidence

What is hierarchy of evidence? Different types of study design are ranked differently depending on their level of evidence. Here you'll get an introduction.

Hierarchy of evidence (7:08 min)

Tips on literature about evaluating

SBU logo

Method. Swedish agency for health technology assessment and assessment of social services

In the SBU:s method book are some information about how to evauate and grade articles. There are also some evaluating malls for different types of study designs, ​


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