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Lund University

Reference guide for APA 7th edition

A guide intended for students at the departments of Biology and Environmental Science at Lund University on how to format references according to the APA style.

Social media

Social media

The instructions in this section are valid for posts on social media such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter and Instagram. Additional instructions concerning specific types of social media can be found in the section Facebook and others and Twitter and Instagram below the general instructions. You should only cite information from a social media post if it is the primary source for the said information. Do not cite a post on social media on information which is available in for example a research article. 

Give the last name and initials of the author, followed by the year of publication in brackets. Provide the most specific publication date that you can. If possible, you include the month and date in addition to the year (YYYY, Month DD). As the title of a social media post, you use the twenty first words of the posts textual content. The text should be given as it appears in the post, including spelling, capitalization, hashtags, links and emojis. Italicize the title. A descriptions of audiovisuals is given in square brackets after the title when applicable. If all of the content is audiovisual, a description in square brackets alone is given. The type of content, e.g. Tweet, Twitter profile, Status update, Facebook page, is described in separate square brackets after the title. Brackets and descriptions of audiovisuals and type of content are not italicized. The title is followed by the site name. The site name can for example be a news website or the name of an organization, company or authority. Lastly, the URL of the website is given.


Facebook and others

When citing posts on Facebook, LinkedIn and other similar sites, write your reference according to the template below.

Template

Author, A. A. (YYYY, Month DD). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Description of audiovisuals] [Type of content]. Site name. URL

Example

Lövin, I. (2019, December 20). Världen befinner sig i kris på så många plan. Att i det läget ge upp och sätta sig på läktaren [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://bit.ly/36Ea3BU

Some posts will have a group author, e.g. organization, company or authority, instead of a personal author. The group author may also have a username, in which case the username is given in brackets after the name of the group author. If a username only is available, state this name as the author.

Template

Name of Group [Username]. (YYYY, Month DD). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Description of audiovisuals] [Type of content]. Site name. URL

Username. (YYYY, Month DD). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Description of audiovisuals] [Type of content]. Site name. URL

Example

News from Science. (2018, June 26). These frogs walk instead of hop: https://scim.ag/2KlriwH [Video]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/ScienceNOW/videos/10155508587605108/


Twitter and Instagram

When citing posts on Twitter or Instagram, the username preceded by an @ is given in brackets after the name of the author. Some posts on Twitter and Instagram will have a group author, e.g. organization, company or authority, instead of a personal author. 

Template

Author, A. A. [@username]. (YYYY, Month DD). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Description of audiovisuals] [Type of content]. Site name. URL

Name of Group [@username]. (YYYY, Month DD). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Description of audiovisuals] [Type of content]. Site name. URL

Example

Rockström, J. [@jrockstrom]. (2019, December 15). Failure of COP25 is proof of a failing world Only good thing is it shows those slowing action are matched [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/jrockstrom/status/1206283781415550976

WWF [@WWF]. (2020, January 8). Australia's iconic wildlife is being hit hard by bushfires. Over 1 billion animals have been killed. Australia needs our support. [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/WWF/status/1214951969414144000