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Lund University

Middle Eastern Studies Subject Guide: Academic writing

  Citing & Referencing

Which reference style to use depends on your subject, so be sure to ask for advice at your department. Here you can find several guides on how to cite and make references according to APA, Harvard and Oxford, the most used reference styles within the social sciences:

Tools for reference management

A reference management program will help you collect and sort the reference you need in your work.

You can use it all the way in your Word document or just add a reference list at the end of your paper.

All students and staff at Lund University are welcome to use EndNote and RefWorks on a campus licence. For guidance go to:

Academic writing: How to use references

Social Sciences Faculty Library

  What does academic writing mean?

Academic writing is about, independently as well as based in the knowledge retrieved from other sources, writing in your own words how you have solved a problem or problematized a certain aspect. You'll have to state clearly which facts and thoughts you've found in the literature and what is your own contribution by using in-text- references and collect all your sources in a reference list. Academic writing is also about following the conventions of your subject discipline regarding language, terminology and reference style.

You can get more guidance in the following guides and exercises:


An online resource for academic writing in English at Lund University. Covers the Writing process, Grammar & Words, Sources & Referencing and Academic Integrity. 

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