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Reference management: Reference styles

A Libguide on how to use software tools for reference management

What is APA?

American Psychological Association (APA) style is a reference style created by the the American Psychological Association, and a style guide that offers information on various aspects important to a writer how wants to submit a paper according to the APA-style. 

The APA guidelines are published in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and in many guides on the internet, see a selection below. The APA style is used by many journals, researchers and students within the social and behavioral sciences.

Example of APA reference style:

Example text:

This text (Monbiot, 2011) is the beginning of something new (Walters, 2007; Öquist & Benner, 2012, p. 5-8 ). So that’s it (De Bellis, 2009, p. 4; Webber & Johnston, 2006).

 

Bibliography:

 

De Bellis, N. (2009). Bibliometrics and citation analysis : from the Science citation index to cybermetrics. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.

Monbiot, G. (2011). The Lairds of Learning. Retrieved November 9, 2011, from http://www.monbiot.com/2011/08/29/the-lairds-of-learning/

Walters, W. (2007). Google Scholar coverage of a multidisciplinary field. Information Processing & Management, 43(4), 1121-1132. doi: 10.1016/j.ipm.2006.08.006

Webber, S., & Johnston, B. (2006). Working towards the information literate university. In G. Walton & A. Pope (Eds.), Information literacy: recognising the need (pp. 47-58). Oxford: Chandos.

Öquist, G., & Benner, M. (2012). Fostering breakthrough research: A comparative study. In F. All (Ed.), Akademirapport (pp. 122): Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien.

 

(This Bibliography is created in EndNote by using the output style APA 6th)

APA Guides, by Sambib LU (in Swedish)

What is Harvard?

The Harvard reference style comes in many shapes, and it is not like the APA style one style with very strict rules. Many reference styles, many journals, many departments and scientists use a reference style based on the Harvard style. Harvard is an 'author/date' system, so your in-text citation consists of author(s) and year of publication. The references in the bibliography should be arranged in alphabetic order. Reference styles based upon the Harvard style is common in humanities, history, and social sciences.

Example of Harvard reference style:

Example text:

This text (Monbiot, 2011) is the beginning of something new (Öquist and Benner, 2012: , p. 5-8 ; Walters, 2007). So that’s it (De Bellis, 2009: , p. 4; Webber and Johnston, 2006).

 

Bibliography:

 

De Bellis N. (2009) Bibliometrics and citation analysis : from the Science citation index to cybermetrics, Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.

Monbiot G. (2011) The Lairds of Learning. Available at: http://www.monbiot.com/2011/08/29/the-lairds-of-learning/.

Walters W. (2007) Google Scholar coverage of a multidisciplinary field. Information Processing & Management 43: 1121-1132.

Webber S and Johnston B. (2006) Working towards the information literate university. In: Walton G and Pope A (eds) Information literacy: recognising the need. Oxford: Chandos, 47-58.

Öquist G and Benner M. (2012) Fostering breakthrough research: A comparative study. In: All F (ed) Akademirapport. Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien, 122.

 

(This Bibliography is created in EndNote by using the output style Sage Harvard)

What is Oxford/Chicago/Footnote style?

There are many reference styles that uses footnotes or number refering back to the bibliography, such as Oxford and Chicago.

Example of Oxford / Chicago/ Footnote reference style:

Example text:

This text[1] is the beginning of something new[2] [3]. So that’s it [4] [5].

 

 

 

 

[1] (Monbiot 2011)

[2] (Öquist and Benner 2012, p. 4-8)

[3] (Walters 2007)

[4] (De Bellis 2009)

[5] (Webber and Johnston 2006)

 

Bibliography:

 

De Bellis, Nicola. 2009. Bibliometrics and citation analysis : from the Science citation index to cybermetrics. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.

Monbiot, George. 2011. The Lairds of Learning, 110829 2011 [cited 111109 2011]. Available from http://www.monbiot.com/2011/08/29/the-lairds-of-learning/.

Walters, W. 2007. "Google Scholar coverage of a multidisciplinary field." Information Processing & Management no. 43 (4):1121-1132. doi: 10.1016/j.ipm.2006.08.006.

Webber, S , and B  Johnston. 2006. "Working towards the information literate university." In Information literacy: recognising the need, edited by G Walton and A Pope, 47-58. Oxford: Chandos.

Öquist, Gunnar, and Mats Benner. 2012. Fostering breakthrough research: A comparative study. In Akademirapport, edited by Fredrik All: Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien.

 

(This Bibliography is created in EndNote by using the output style Chicago 16th B)